Monday, September 30, 2019

Behavioral Theories of Learning

Skinner’s terminology provides that positive reinforcers are any form of encouragement like rewards, awards and goals and positive reinforcement is the act itself of receiving the reward or achieving the goal (Skinner B. F. , 1969). The definitions of operant conditioning provide that negative reinforcement is a mode of behavioral theory that as a result of experiencing a negative condition, a particular behavior is enhanced, strengthened or emphasized. (http://www. mcli. dist. maricopa. edu/proj/nru/opcond. html, 1999).A good example of positive reinforcement inside a classroom would be a teacher giving extra credits for students who would achieve a certain high average. How is this positive reinforcement? Students will become motivated to excel and give extra effort to achieve the award and in the process they get to learn more ultimately benefiting them in the end. A pre-school teacher giving candy to the brave little girl who will not cry and back out of her first day in s chool is also an instance of positive reinforcement.The school board giving an award or an additional benefit for the teacher of the month, this is another example of a positive reinforcement. Why is that? By promising to give a little extra something, the school encourages the teachers to improve their over-all teaching performance and by doing so, they are encouraging a little friendly competition among fellow educators. The learning curve is sure to climb the charts if all the teachers and students are motivated. How will that be achieved? It is simple.The teachers will be inspired to think of innovative teaching methods that will be effective on students and in turn the students learn more. Some teachers are not as approachable as others that is the reason why students don’t ask questions even though they did not fully understand the subject matter, as a solution, they can make themselves available to students for consultation. As a result, the school’s educational framework benefits because of cooperation and communication. Everybody gets a special kind of something in the end.The key word in positive reinforcement is benefit. One way or another, everyone receives something beneficial to himself and to others as well. An example of negative reinforcement inside the four corners of the classroom would be a teacher who warns students that if they fail the exam they would get an automatic failing grade. This is negative reinforcement because if a student wants to avoid getting a failing grade, he would study. His studying habits will be strengthened as a consequence of being threatened of getting a failing grade.The application of negative reinforcement can be most usually seen in the fields of education and reform. The use of fines, imprisonment is one such example of the use of negative reinforcement to warn of the negative consequences of associating with social ills (Skinner,1953). Negative Reinforcement as compared to punishment strengthen s a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a result of such behavior while the latter weakens a behavior because of the introduction of a negative condition as a result of the behavior (mcli. dist.maricopa. edu, 1999). An example of punishment is when a student is caught cheating by his professor, the consequence would be detention or suspension. Another demeanor of a student which is very suitable for punishment is bribing a teacher in order for him to get an â€Å"A†. This offense should be dealt with seriously because it can affect the educational system not to mention the character and reputation of the school. Punishment endeavors to make the person realize the intensity of the offense that was committed and for him to reflect on his actions.All these will be in vain if an important goal of punishment is not achieved, which goal is for the person not to repeat the same offense ever again. The application of these kinds of reinforcement depends upo n the situation and the individual upon whom these will be enforced. Imagine expelling a student for being caught littering inside the school grounds. The use of these types of reinforcements would vary not only because of a particular scenario but the attitude and intent of the person involved would have to be taken into consideration as well. In positive and negative reinforcement, the responses and effects are unpredictable.The effect would be of course either positive or negative as well. Positive outcome results when the desired response or behavior is achieved by using a certain kind of reinforcement, however, this desired outcome is not always achieved. For instance, in positive reinforcement, the aim is improvement and encouragement but the psyche of the person being motivated or encouraged does not depend on the positive reinforcer. For instance, no matter what benefit the teacher promises the student but the latter is not moved by it, there would be no positive result.The results in negative reinforcement, the aim of which is education or reform, will not be accomplished when the expected reaction or behavior is not achieved. As in the example given above, when a teacher suspends or sends a student in detention for cheating but the latter does it again, negative outcome results. In the field of education, positive or negative enforcement or even punishment may be associated with each other not only because they are modes to elicit a certain response from a student but because of the result they so aspire.The means may be different but the desired end to be achieved is the same; to maximize the learning potential and more importantly to mold the student’s behavior for the better. References Skinner B. F. , 1969, Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Retrieved 04/03/09 from http://www. freeonlineresearchpapers. com/ Macopa Center for Learning and Instruction Retrieved 04/03/09 from http://www. mcli. dist. maricopa. edu/proj/nru/opcond. html Skinner B. F. , 1953, Science and Human Behaviour, New York: Macmillan. Retrieved 04/03/09 from http://www. freeonlineresearchpapers. com/

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Is male more aggressive than female? Essay

It is generally thought that human males tend to behave more violently and aggressively than human females – and it seems true. In United States, most of the homicides during 1980 to 2008 are males, representing 90% of the total number (United States Department of Justice, 2010), and it is also the trend in the whole world. The reason of the difference between man and female in violence is always explained biologically – the testosterone level of adult males is 20 times to females, as testosterone would make people more aggressive (Terburg & Aarts & Honk, 2011). However, it is not a suitable explanation to the question as the testosterone level of boys and girl are same until they are about eight years old and boys actually acting more violently and aggressively since four-year-old. A more reliable explanation would be the different of size of corpus callosum, which is the part that connects the right and the left hemisphere in the brain. As boys are having a smaller co rpus callosum than girls, they are more difficult to work under trauma and neglect comparing to girls. Therefore, boys needs to receive more love and caretaking than girls in order to keep their corpus callosum. If their caretaker could not give them enough attention, their prefrontal cortices, which are the part of brain related to self control and empathy would be damaged. The amygdala, which is the part of brain forming the feeling of fear, would also be excited, and fears would be formed. As a result, their serotonin levels would be decreased and product more corticosterone, and these would led to the decrease of calming ability and the increase of stress hormone. Therefore, boys are more easily to have weaker selves, lower empathy, lower control on avoid to behave violently and more fears. However, the society is most likely to give less care and love to males as the society requests males to be brave, strong and independent. Males are hard to gain love and caring as they need to fit in a image of male in the society. The situation increase the aggressive of male further. These factors led to the difference of violent behavior and aggressive level between boys and girls (Demause, 2010). In other species, mainly mammals such as rat, would have a similar gender difference which male is more violently and aggressively than females. According to a study (Adams, 1991), males are much more easily to fright with another male than female when during the breeding season while in the  presence of females. However, the gender different of violent would only occur in this moment. Male and female are having no difference on aggressive level and behaving violent in other situation such as defending and offending according to the study. The reason of this difference is that males need to defeat other males to mate with female during the breeding season in order to reproduce the next generation. The violent of male during this period is base on the genetic setting, which creature needs to reproduce continuously. Although there are similar gender differences of violent behavior between animal and human, they obviously do not having similar theories. The gender difference of violent of human is because of the difference of brain structure and the pressure needed to bear. The difference is not just occurred because of biosocial reason, but also artificial reason. Although the brain structure could not be changed, the most importance reason to increase the violent behavior and aggressive level of male is still base on how the family and society treat them. Generally, people will not blame and punish non-human animals for their bad behavior including killing people because people consider that the behavior of animals are genetic and could not be controlled by themselves. Although some of these animals may be killed as they are considered to be dangerous to human, most of them would not be seen as guilty. Some may think that part of human personality had been also designed in the DNA before birthing, so it is not fair to blame human who had done something wrong as the personality had soon designed how he or she would behave and he or she is forced to do the bad behavior by the DNA. However, human is differing from other non-human species because human have the ability to control their behavior. Human have the ability to learn to behave good by considering the others and do something that would not harming and annoying others. Actually, genetic is not very importance for affecting human’s personality. For example, although the diff erence of violent behavior and aggressive level between male and female is partly related to the genetic different as mentioned, it could be changed by suitable nurturance. Male could build up a static and calm personality if they had received enough love and care from the society and family. The later and earlier generation of criminal are not inheriting the personality the genetic of behaving badly. It is obvious that  nurture plays a more importance role of shaping one’s personality than genetic factor. Therefore, human can and should avoid behaving badly. Human have developed a lot of way and system in order to teach human avoid doing something which would harm others and doing something that would benefit others and the society. Civilization and education are common way to teach people how to control their behavior and doing something that would be good for the society. Human build up moralities in order to set rules of how human act and behave. Human could learn how to behave good through moral education and taking the behavior of their family members, friends and society as example to learn how to behave good. It is also a big different to animals as animals would only living following their instinctive reaction. They do not have the ability to recognize what is right and what is wrong. They also do not have the ability to learn how to behave good and consider the situation of other.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A House on Fire Essay Sample

Soon I was at the topographic point. Already a big crowd of people had gathered near a large edifice which was on fire. Fires were lifting high. Peoples were running approximately confused. The calls of kids got assorted with the scream of adult females. It was truly a heart-rending scene. Soon the intelligence spread. Some male child lookouts arrived at the scene. They at one time set to work. They brought buckets of H2O from the pat nearby and threw it on the fires. Some of them brought bags of sand. I. excessively joined in the work. Person rang the fire brigade. Soon it came down the street. doing a loud noise. The sound of its bell pealing tardily at dark served as an dismay to the people of the vicinity. They all rushed to the topographic point. Many came at that place to function the panic afflicted inmates of the house. The brass-helmeted work forces of the fire brigade at one time started their work. They took out their hose pipes and directed H2O towards the fires. It was after an. hour’s difficult labor that the fire began to decease out: At last it was extinguished. The edifice now presented a ghastly visual aspect. It was all charred and in ruins. The valuable furniture and dearly-won points of the house lay scattered on the route. The lookouts formed a cordon round the things and did non allow anyone come near them. The proprietor of the house was all but a destroyed adult male. He looked really sad. His married woman. an old lady. was crying bitterly. The kids. excessively. were terror stricken. They barely knew what catastrophe had overtaken the household. The fire brigade went back. The crowd besides melted off. Soon the topographic point was every bit deserted as earlier. No one knew the cause of the fire. It was rumoured that it was all the consequence of smoke. It was estimated that belongings worth one hundred thousand had been destroyed in the fire. Fortunately there was no loss of life. I. excessively. went back place. It was past midnight. I was tired out but happy that I had been of some aid.

Friday, September 27, 2019

ISMG Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

ISMG - Essay Example On the other hand, type 3 involves the management of strategies and resources. Notably, the consultant's report rated Davies as a type 1 manager who is facing challenges to advance to type 2 of IT leadership (Austin et al 81). However, the report had faith in Davies to transit to the next level and thus chose to retain him with a view that it would take be challenging to find an effective replacement within a short time. However, Barton would transit to the next level with speed and hence his hiring. The consultants asserted that Davies earned respect from his IT staff but he equally had poor interrelationships in his job as a CIO where he always relied on IT to solve any problem (Austin et al 82). Again, the consultants recommended that sufficient training and counseling would solve this problem. As such, the report tells us that IT investments generate great value for the company and such investment resides in the IT experts that the company hires (Austin et al 81). However, the re port favors the significance of the ability to manage portfolio projects, play senior team leadership roles, and manage infrastructure. Indeed, it disregards individualism and advocates for teamwork in management, which leads to Davies' firing and Barton's hiring (Austin et al 81-82). ... More so, the benefits claimed from the success of a proposed project are the same benefits that IT would claim and hence assigning quantitative value to the return on an IT investment would amount to double claims of value (Austin et al 72). At the same time, where a business unit proposes an IT-enabled change, it would be difficult to allocate some or all the resultant benefits between the business units and IT (Austin et al 72). Response 3- Examples to Refute the "It Doesn't Matter" Contention Assuredly, IT plays a very significant part in any company. In fact, the adoption and success of IT in an organization derives a great competitive advantage. For example, Apple's invests in IT to produce classy, cool, entertaining, and multipurpose gadgets like iPods and iPad, which gives it a competitive edge over its main competitors. More so, Nestle collaborated with Google to reinforce its digital technology and online presence, which enable Nestle to take its products to a wider market a nd satisfy the customers’ preferences. As such, it is clear that IT investments can enable an organization derive capabilities that are not available to relevant competitors. Response 4-Where My firm Fall on the "Strategic Grid" Presented on pp. 77-78 The McFarlan’s Strategic Grid has the vertical and the horizontal axis. The vertical axis depicts the operational dependence of the organization on IT while the horizontal axis represents the competitive differentiation that a company derives from IT (Austin et al 77-78). My reference company is Accenture, which is a management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company. Ideally, Accenture is in the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Human Beings and the Evolutionary Process Essay

The Human Beings and the Evolutionary Process - Essay Example The names and contributions made by Lamarck and Darwin appear to be at the top of the list of the anthropologists-theorists rendering the most noteworthy services in the discipline of evolution and biological-cultural anthropology. Renowned nineteenth-century English biologist-naturalist Sir Charles Darwin (1809-82) presented his distinguished Theory of Evolution in his illustrious work On the Origin of Species (1859), where he articulated the unique idea that humans could have shared the same ancestry associated with the other species existing on the face of the earth. By this Darwin perhaps does not mean to challenge the Biblical mythology or ridiculing the religious beliefs in order to hurt the sentiments of the followers of Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). On the contrary, he just looks for elucidating the relationship between man’s physical and mental growth through adaptation according to the changes taking place within the natural, physical and social environment. In other words, Darwinian anthropology asserted a meaningful relationship between the workings of nature and the conscious actions of animal breeders (Marks 1999). Though aptly criticized by Darwin’s contemporary theologians and dogmatists, he was not the pioneer in respect of articulating the evolution theory. On the other hand, his predecessor Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) had already presented the similar notion that various species, including the human beings, observe significant transformations in their biological and social traits according to the physical and cultural phenomena existing around them. Not only this that the species adopt these changes according to the circumstances, but also they maintain the ability to transfer the same characteristics to their young ones through a hereditary process (Bowler 2003). Somehow, Darwin dedicated himself in respect of unearthing the realities regarding the changes species experience during the course o f time. These changes, according to the theorist, occur because of the biological needs and requirements of the species. Darwin claims to have followed the induction canon, according to Ayala (2009), prevalent among his contemporary British philosophers and economists, including J.S. Mill, Francis Bacon, and others. Hence, he concentrated upon multiple similar species and applied his hypothesis upon different species too in order to draw out conclusions paving the way towards his marvelous theory of evolution seeking one and the same ancestry for the species sharing similar physical traits. Darwin accumulated scientific evidence in support of his evolution theory by concentrating upon two points; first, whether or not evolution has taken place in the biological and social life of the individuals; and secondly whether the evolution has undergone various stages for adopting the present shape and form developed by the species. Consequently, the in-depth investigation made by this great science giant i.e. Darwin was not confined to mere speculation or the limited study confined to some specific species only. Rather, the study focused upon insects and mammals, vertebrates and invertebrates, fowls and fish, and animals and fish at large. Though the dogmatists opposed Darwinian perspective to a great extent.

Quantitative Marketing. Data Driven Marketing Term Paper

Quantitative Marketing. Data Driven Marketing - Term Paper Example Part ii One of the main concern that arises from this study is the fact that the sample is quite small considerate the size of the market that is being investigated. Given that the service bend sold is a product that can be sold to all people across the United States, taking a sample of only one thousand people may not have provided a reliable sample to represent the whole population that that is the target market. The other issue that arises from the survey is that it was not targeted at a particular market segment. In this regard, the results are not entirely reliable because some of the respondents may not have answered the questions with openness. To be more effective, the survey should have tried to narrow done to a specific segment of the market. This should have been done by identifying which segment of the market, depending on gender, age, or social class that the subscription would be most relevant to. This, combined with a bigger survey sample would have given a more reliab le result. Such a survey can be very subjective if the sample is not big enough and if the sample is not chosen correctly. This is specialized product and therefore doing a shopping mall survey is not the best way to get the relevant information regarding the market for the product because the sample was most likely contaminated by questioning the wrong cohort of respondents. The other issue with the study is that the demonstration that was given to the respondents was not enough and this could mean that they did not have enough time to process the product and make an informed decision. By this virtue, there is a high possibility that most of the customers answered the questions based on gut feeling. For instance, because they did not have enough time to understand the products, they were only concerned about the cost as opposed to understanding the products and then judging the cost based in value the product it is giving them compared to the cost. Phase II Given the elasticity of demand as shown, it would be better to decrease the price of the subscription to increase the rates of subscription. This would mean that the company would need to lower the rates of subscription to the lowest rate possible to increase the revenues through increased subscriptions. There is one special thing about the said product. Since this product is a content product which means that it will be affected by the Metcalfe law of networks which indicates that the usability or relevance of a network increases with the number of network users. For instance, in this case, the more the number of network users, the more useful the network will be and the more it will be able to attract even more subscribers thus increasing the revenues. As the number of subscribers increase, the company will be able to reduce the subscription rates and still make enough profits. The above recommendation is subject to whether or not the demand will continue to be elastic to the maximum or the elasticity of the demand will stop at certain point. If the demand is not as elastic as it is thought to be, it may mean that the recommendation will not be right and that a better pricing strategy would need to be looked at. At the same time, it is important to note that the there will be other factors that may arise as time goes by. For instance, if a similar product comes into the market, the competition will bring new challenges to the market. In this kind of a scenario, it

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Itroduction and rationale Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Itroduction and rationale - Research Paper Example She has six honorary Doctoral Degrees (Johnson & Webber, 2010). Apart from her acquaintances in the University of Colorado, Jean Watson is a member of American Academy of Nursing. Additionally, she is the president of the National League of Nursing. The most significant career if her elongated research in the area of human science and human caring. This point of her career created the profile of Jean Watson. Across the nursing field Jean Watson is widely known for her expertise in human caring and science. Her contribution in this field led to her publishing of the Jean Watson’s theory on human care. The theory is known as the caring theory which was published in 1988 (Johnson & Webber, 2010). The theory was published in the journal of human science and human care. The rationale of choosing the theory In the selection of the theory and theorists, this particular theory is rare in the field of nursing. Few scholars have made progress in coming up with satisfactory detailed publ ication on human care. According to Johnson & Webber (2010) human care is a neglected field in the medical field. The author further argues that human care is one delicate field that explains the existence of numerous medical relationships between patients and their medical practitioners. Human care is also an inclusion of other modes of medication apart from the ordinary medical care (Hiott, 2010). Human care theory is a grand range theory. The Caring Theory While creating the theory, Watson had in mind the motive to capture the medical essence of not a pat3eint but the human environment of the patient. To be able to achieve this, she included family care and support in the theory and highlighting how important family care is in regards to patient recovery. In words by Johnson & Webber (2010) the caring theory creates and emphasizes on the humanistic aspects of nursing but also with the consideration of scientific knowledge. The general motive of the caring theory is improving the medical and social relationship between patients and nurses. The theory by Watson gives duty to nurses as follows: Create a healthy relationship with the patients. Approach patients with a positive motive Promote health through intervention and medical knowledge Spend significant amount of time with the patients Accept the condition and the patient regardless of their status. Treat patient like innocent and holy creatures Have a positive stature in mind, body and spirit when approaching patients Instill hope and faith in patients Assistance in the acquiring of the basic needs In words by Hiott (2010) the mood of a nurse in a room is responsible for the perception of a patient towards the environment. It may be bright, dull, small, threatening or secure. The author further explains that these provisions of the caring theory give so much authority to nurses to make patients comfortable in the medical institution setting. The theory is based on four concepts: human being, health, envir onment or society and nursing Johnson & Webber (2010). Human being refers to the patients in need of care and medical attention. Health refers to the medical condition of the patient the type of medication the patient is in need of. The environment refers to the provisions of the WHO regarding proper handling and state of medical institutions Johnson & Webber (2010). Nursing is concerned with provision of healthcare and taking care of the patient. Classification of the theory In the creation of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Critically response to articles and a book Essay

Critically response to articles and a book - Essay Example Readers interpret texts depending on how they understand them. When readers read the book The Things They Carried, they will not fail to sympathize with what soldiers go through while at war. The paper looks at how a reader may respond to the book concerning the circumstances surrounding the soldiers when they are at war. When readers read the text, they will no doubt understand the role of soldiers in ensuring that their country is safe from external attacks. Andrew Krepinevich Jr, the author of The Army, and Vietnam argues that soldiers must be ready to face various challenges when they go to war (13). The writer argues that the US army had to accomplish its mission in Vietnam before leaving that country. In order for soldiers to have victory in the war, they are fighting, it is important for them to be prepared both psychologically and physically. Wars are won first in the mind, then physically. Fatalities on the side of the American army would have been reduced if America would have taken time and studied Vietnam before launching attacks. Love is the most powerful weapon soldiers can take to war. Soldiers must first love their country and family in order to have the morale to fight in the war. The author of the text does a commendable job to highlight the story of love in the book. In the book, Cross carries letters from a student named Martha because he is in love with her. Cross remembers taking her out on a date and wishes he had taken to her room (Brien Cranston). Love is a powerful tool for an individual can decide to do anything just because of love. What the American army needs to do always is to cultivate the love of its members to their country and families. Every soldier would want to be a hero back at home. The book ought to have identified more cases of love in the book since it is the main issue that surrounded the soldiers who went to Vietnam. Every person must embrace hope when facing challenges or

Monday, September 23, 2019

Cities and Social Difference Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Cities and Social Difference - Term Paper Example The concept of culture landscape today suffers a series of more enrichment and transformations, thus we find the acquired character of culture and the process of production as well as attribution which culture is an instrument in the entire study and analysis of the complexity of the social contemporary societies (Gower, 1990, p. 45). Therefore, in this paper, I will engage with the large body of mainstream sociological research which views landscape as being divided, segregated and patterned by inequalities in a measurable way and objectively defined way such as quantitative rate of urban residential segregation as well as inevitable boundaries that separate poor neighborhoods from gentrifying area. The next section of the paper is to analyze the landscape, economics, and politics identities. I also turn to look at the city street as a site for the micro-social interaction patterned with structural relationships of social difference and inequalities, Then finally I present a more su bjectivist perspective, which highlight the role of space in the social production of inequalities, at this point, the neighborhood is shown to act as both a cultural and a special form. The habitues of many residents in impoverished neighborhoods is seen as both a mechanism and a product for reproduction of isolation and poverty from mainstream society. Analytical review of city landscape: Throughout time, social culture differences that have been stimulated by a series of major events are identified as being essential in the process of evolution and shaping of spaces that exists today. In this context of two major forces of globalization and new economy, Los Angeles city has found a new way to survive and collaborate through creativity and technology. This particular revolution is referred to as social cultural moment, whereby, the past paradigms of social developments are replaced with new culture development, diversity and fragmentation. To find out the acquired character as wel l as present culture, we carried out a field work analysis of the complexity culture and material concept of landscape in LA. Therefore, this paper shall discus the social differences expressed in the landscapes of contemporary Los Angeles. One of America’s iconic landscape, Los Angeles strip stretches from the south of Hollywood Hills, down town LA, all the way to the Pacific Ocean 18 miles in length. It cuts across different landscapes, residential areas, and commercial and entertainment amenities; making it the diverse city that it is today. Without a doubt, a ride from Bell Air to downtown LA reveals the diverse physical landscape that clearly separates the various social segments from one part of the town to another. As the bus approached towards Beverly Hills, I could see the change in street signs and signal structures. From Blue shabby signs to white crisp indicators, I was beginning to feel the contrast from campus already. The aligned green trees welcomed us as we t raversed into the residential areas. The huge houses, mansion to be exact, evidently said something about the people that resided within. With manicured lawns and polished driveways, these starters offered an exotic menu for the eyes. The aesthetic value attributable by these trees not only acts as beautiful scenery, but also as a natural heritage as well as for environmental nourishment as they make the climate to be cool and conducive for the residents as well as

Saturday, September 21, 2019

State and federal Essay Example for Free

State and federal Essay How a society punishes their criminals can say a lot about the way the citizens live their lives. Here in the United States we would rather take better care of someone in prison for life than a person on the street who has never committed a crime in their life. The philosophy and practices has changed drastically in the last 30 years. Rehabilitation was the main focus for the beginning of the 20th century. This gave way to a new found focus on justice, and fairness in the 1970s. Crime control was the next practice of sentencing, this emphasized jail time as a way to reduce the crime in a community. During the 1980s-1990s this model of crime control was very popular. The emphasis on goals of the sentencing, and corrections policies, and practices can be characterized. Sentencing has four major goals that are normally attributed to it: deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and retribution. Retribution is from the 21 centuries model of â€Å"just deserts.† The main idea is that if someone breaks the law they should be punished. The other three uses more emphasize on protecting the public. The way they go about is how they differ. Deterrence focuses on the burdensome aspect of a punishment. This makes the offender think about what he or she is, has, or is about to do. This is to make a rational thought that the chance of getting caught is too high, not worth the risk. The idea is to make the person (specific deterrence) who may commit the crime so afraid of the punishment, and detour others (general deterrence) from committing the same crime. Incapacitation is when a person is deprived the capacity to commit a crime due to the fact they are, well in prison. Next is rehabilitation. The goal here is to change the way an offender thinks, and acts so that they do not commit crimes any more. This is done by usually offering an education to an offender. When all of this is combined, and put to work it creates a large work load for the corrections departments across the United States. Though not one of these works best for every prison, city, or inmate, but when combined can be a useful tool. The corrections system takes a large blow depending on how a crime or offender is sentenced. With most jails, and prisons near, at, or over capacity they must take each sentence in to consideration. For retribution there can be very little impact on a large scale prison, but for a small town corrections department this can make an impact. When an offender is charged with a crime, and is sentenced with a form for retribution, community service for example. For every person that is sentenced in this way it takes more resources to complete the task for the corrections department. If more offenders were sentenced to probation or parole the impact on the corrections system would be much less. This would defeat the purpose of the system many times. The idea behind the sentence is to get the criminal off the streets, and out of the community. Rehabilitation is considered to be the only punishment that is a combination of the reduction of crime with the offender’s rights intact. Crime can be deterred by long prison terms, and capital punishment, rehabilitation will only work if the offender can re-enter the community or society. If this is not an option extreme punishments need not to be ruled out. If one is to favor a â€Å"right’s oriented rehabilitation,† this is to accept the criminal’s liability to receive punishment, but also assumes the right on his or her part to be able to return to society, and be a contributing member of a community. This idea is often referred to as â€Å"state-obligated rehabilitation.† This meaning that if the right of the state is to punish, they also must be able to educate their prisoners. The idea is that no more harm comes than was intended at the time of the sentence. One can go as far as to say that if the state or federal prison system does not provide a source of rehabilitation to the inmates it would be cruel and unusual punishment. If the goal is to rehabilitate the criminals, and one day have them back on the street as functioning members of a society that we want so badly to be safe, and secure then yes. Prison should be a harsh environment, but at the same time a place where one can gain a new found  appreciation for a hard work ethic or a basis education. Also along with this prison needs to be a place where an offender can look back, and be thankful for the time they spent their because of the education they received, but at the same time never want to return because it is such a horrible place. According to The Free Dictionary (2013), â€Å"Determinate Sentence – A sentence to confinement for a fixed or minimum period that is specified by statute.   Indeterminate Sentence – The prison term imposed after conviction for a crime which does not state a specific period of time or release date, but just a range of time, such as â€Å"five-to-ten years.† My personal opinion is that indeterminate sentencing is a more appropriate approach to sentencing. For one there are so many variables that can go into a case that if a cookie cutter approach is tried to be used there will be several things over looked, and then many things over emphasized. The idea for a punishment to be passed down that is fair to the individual not the crime. Though I believe that some crimes should have a determinate sentence to them with an option of adjustment depending of the situation, but for the most part if someone breaks that law, no matter who, what, why, where, or when they get the same sentence. An example According to OMally Law Office (2013), †A man convicted of sexual assault on his maid had his sentence reduced from 28 years to life, to 8 years to life in an Arapahoe County, Colorado court recently. This story was reported in a CBS Denver 4 News release. Homaida Al-Turki, a Saudi-Arabia citizen, was accused and convicted on 12 counts of sexual assault related to keeping his maid as a sex slave in his Aurora, Colorado home. The reduction in sentence was said to be ordered because Mr. Al-Turki, who was incarcerated at a Limon, Colorado facility for the past five years, displayed good behavior, and also due implications from a recent Colorado Supreme Court ruling in a case unrelated to Mr. Al-Turki. It is important to note that Mr. Al-Turki still faces an indeterminate sentence. Indeterminate sentencing in Colorado means that a defendant may be kept for  his entire life, regardless of his minimum sentence. So, the practice effect is that if the parole board desires to keep Mr. Al-Turki in the custody of the Colorado Department of Corrections forever, they can. In effect, the sentence reduction only impacts the minimum sentence this defendant must serve, not the maximum. Indeterminate sentences in Colorado only come into play with Colorado sex offenses. Whether it is Douglas County, Weld County, Larimer County or another Colorado County, indeterminate sentences are devastating.†

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Objective Of Zakat Theology Essay

The Objective Of Zakat Theology Essay The socket has been introduced in pre-colonial Malaysia. Before the British colonial Malaysia, the village in the country, as in other parts of the world developed through land settlement or colonization. One of the popular methods was the collective Pondok system, which was particularly common in the Muda Region of Kedah. By this system, a group of settlers would gather around and a person who is well -versed in Islamic Knowledge or who had already established himself as a religious teacher .After the they found a suitable place , they will build their Pondok (huts) around a Madras; a religious center for worship as well as teaching. In the case where the group has been established, they would invite a religious teacher from elsewhere to set up a Madras among them.This religious teacher was also the Imam of the community, in the sense that he led five prayers daily in the mosque or madsarah. The group of peasant will be going out to open land around the clusters of their Pondok, leaving their children to the teacher for religious education at day time. For those wives who are unable to work with their spouse in the land also will obtained religious instruction from the teacher. The peasants will receive religious at least one or twice a week and longer on Friday because it was a day of rest. They will spend more time in the mosque than the field. As an appreciation for the service provided by the teacher, the peasants usually will collectively clear a piece of land and cultivate if for the teacher. Slowly, as the land become more productive and the production level of each peasant family exceeds the nisab of 480 Gantang  [1]  for each harvesting, the peasant family would pay skate at their 10 % of the gross yield of the paddy. According to Afifudin, those early days all the skate form a specific group in the Pondok system would go to the teacher. If a group of 50 sacked paying peasants would contribute a minimum of 2400 Gantang each year .As time goes by, the wealth of the teacher can be accumulated. The teacher can use the socket for the expansion of Madras. During the colonial period in Malaysia especially Kelantan, zakat was administered by imam,who is is the local religious leader managed the zakat collection and surpervised by the division of inherited party.In order to finance the intensified activities ,the state required imams to surrender part of the zakat they collected at the village level.However,this menthod is only partially successful due to the British regime replaced Grahmans ,the Islamic administration .The Grahman took charge of civil administration ,he divested the imams of their civil function .which were transfer to the headman (ketua kampong) . According to secret institution in Malaysia .During British Colonial Period , The segregation between religion, custom and temporal matters took place during this period. All Islamic and Malay customs related matters were administered by a special body known as Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN). Other than that, the rest came under the purview of the British civil and criminal law system (Matters associated with socket were administered by MAIN. Accordingly, in Zakat Satu Tinjauan, Kelantan was the first state to establish the body which later became a model to other Malay States. Under this model, the Imam (spiritual leader) has been empowered to govern skate related matters and a portion of zakat collection would be delivered to the state government as a financial resource for Islamic affairs. That was how the administration of soaked developed until today which remain under the supervision of State Islamic Councils. After the independence of Malaysia, New Economic Policy has been introduced.The zakat fund is use for investment purpose .In the early 1970s ,the minister of National and Rural Development ,Encik Ghaffae Baba,who was also the chairman of Mara ,urged all the state Religious Councils to invested substantial portion of their money (mostly derived from the collection of zakat) in Amanah Saham Mara .The objective is to eliminate the income gap between the ethnic group in Malaysia,especially the Muslim and Chinese. The objective of Zakat The primary objective of Zakat is to elevate the spirit of human being above the material acquisition.Consequently, Islam does not view the zakat payer as a mere of sore of funds,but as a person who always needs purification and cleansing, both spiritually and materially. The prophet (p) summaries this purpose in the ayat ,sadaqa from hier wealth by which you might purify and cleanse them. Zakat, when paid out of submission to the commad of Allah ,is a mean of purifying the soul of a Muslim from greed and miserliness.The vices of selfishness and greed must be controlled in order for human beings to elevate their spirits ,to succed in their social realtions in his life ,and gain admittance to paradise .Allah Almighty says, Truly man is niggardly! (17:100) and But people are prone to selfish greed.)Zakat is a purifier that trains Muslims to give and spend selflessly .It liberates their souls from the love of wealth and slavery to materials gains and acquisitions. On top of that, zakat is a mean of training Muslims on virtues of generosity as much as it is a means of purificarion from greed .Being paid in repetitive pattern year after year ,regular zakat as well as zakat al-fitr train Muslims to give and spend for charitable purpose. The Quran describes believers as the righteous who have the virtue of spending for good reasons.The very second sura of the Quran begins, Alif .Lam .Mim.That is the Book with no doubt .In it is guidance for the godfearing :those who believe in Unseen and establish the prayer and give of what we have provided for them.This exhortation is reiterated many times in the Quran ,such as Those who give away their wealth by night and by day ,secretly and openly ,: Those who give in times of both ease and hardship and The steadfast ,the truthful ,the obedient ,the givers ,and those who seek forgivness before dawn. Also ,once a person is trained to spend on public interests and to give to his brethren out of his own wealth, he is most likely to be freed from any urge to transgress on other peoples wealth and possessions. Besides that, zakat trains people to acquire divine characteristic.If man purified of miserliness and greed and becomes accustomed to the habit of giving and spending, his soul is elevated abouve low human trait of covetousness, Truly man is niggardly! (17:100) and aspire to the height of Divine perfection, since one of the characteristic of Allah is absolute and unlimited mercy, powers, theoretical and practical .Allah obliges zakat in order to perfect human souls in graciousness to oher people ,as the prophet says, Train yourselves to attributes of Allah.This encouragement to spend throught zakat and voluntary charity resulted with time,u in the emergence of charitable trusts all over Muslim world,trusts devoted not only to helping the poor and needy but to all causes for human beings as well as animals. In addition ,zakat is to shows expression of thankfulness to Allah .Gratitude and thankfulness are among the best characteristics of human beings.Zakat is an expression of thankfulness to Allah for the bouties .He gives on us .Allah, says al-Ghazali, has gives on human spiritual and materials bounties.Prayers and other acts of physical worship express gratitude for the blessing of creation, while zakat and other acts of donator worship express gratitude for the material blessings of Allah .The concept that zakat is thanks Allah for His bounties is s widespread and deeply rooted in the consciousness of Muslims that it is common to say that one must give zakat in thanks for the grace of sight ,hearing,health ,knowledge, etc. Also, zakat stimulates personality growth in those who pay it .Through helping others overcome their financial difficulties , zakat payers are enriched by feelings of self-worth and fufilment . Zakat also helps offer the payers self to others and grow throught helping them and gives the payer a noble sense of victory over his base desires and material drives-over his owns shaytan. Last but not least, zakat is to purifies wealth.This is because zakat is a right to the poor , not paying it means keeping something that belongs to others intermingled worth ones wealth and this brings Allahs wrath on the whole wealth. The Prophet (p) says, If you pay zakat on your wealth ,you have taken away its evil. Types of zakat Zakat is divided into several types : Zakat of Income Zakat of Savings Zakat of Business Zakat of KWSP/LTAT Zakat of Share Zakat of Livestock Zakat of Gold and Silver Zakat of Crops Zakat of Income Extra payment received by an individual from their employer or individual itself in the form of physical energy or physically or professional employment for specific day, month and yearly also been required to pay zakat. Employment income includes: 1) The annual salary 2) Other allowances 3) Unpaid wages 4) Other remuneration such as bonuses, etc. Method Of Calculation First Method Using gross income (without deduction) 2.5% on gross income per year. Example : Total gross income per year : RM 25,000.00 Amount of zakat (2.5%) : RM 625.00 Monthly Payment : RM 625.00 /12 = RM 52.08 Second Method Using the net income (Income year less allowable expenses per year) x 2.5% Expenses allowed deduction (per year): -:- Self : RM 8,000.00 Wife : RM 5,000.00 Children : RM 1,000.00 KWSP : 11% from gross income workers Parents Contribution : RM (amount given) per month x 12 months Contributions to organizations that pay the zakat (for example: Lembaga Tabung Haji, Takaful) Zakat of savings Contribution of workers and employers to KWSP People Provident Fund , Soldiers Provident Fund (LTAT) are also required to pay zakat as the concept is similar to savings but the different is savings of KWSP and LTAT could not be withdraws anytime wherenever they like and it is subject the rules. Fixed Deposit Fixed deposit of RM 100,000 was kept for a year without the excluded (assumed nisab charity at that RM 9430.00) Then charity is required to produce are: RM 100,000 x 2.5% = RM 2.500 Regular Deposit Method Of Calculation (Duration haul is January 5, 1999 until February 7, 2000) (Assuming nisab of charity at that RM 3,323.50) So zakat are : (Balances with lower interest bank refused WITH) X 2.5% (RM 9,115.00 RM 115.00) x 2.5% = RM 225.00 Zakat of Business Zakat been given out by Sole Propirate, Partnership, Cooperative Society, Societies and Organization which had reached one year and the time limit. Method Of Calcutions [ ( Current Assets Current Liability ) + Coordination x Percentage of Muslims Share x ZAKAT ABILITY ( 2.5 % ) ]. Zakat of KWSP Contributions of employees and employers into the Employees Provident Fund (EPF), Lembaga Tabung Angkatan Army (LTAT),or the like imposed zakat as conceptually the same as saving money, but with the difference amount of savings, LTAT and so on shall not be issued at anytime because and subject to regulations that is fixed. CALCULATION METHOD : METHOD 1 2.5% of the contribution that issued once money issued. METHOD 2 2.5% of contribution every employee is based on the annual statement Zakat of shares Zakat which is given out for investment which hasreachedh its time limit and minimum value. METHOD OF CALCULATION 2.5 % the value of lowest share share which is own for one year minus for shared borrowed. If the lowest value is not determined, use the value beginning early in the year or in the year or whichever is the lowest. For shareholders which must be owned by investors. Muslims in the long term to gain control a company or firm so his payment for zakat will be based on the calculations that it will not affect the the importance of other Muslims to get hold of the company. If any of the owners shares has not reached one year, but the whole property being changed for a number of time for one year from shares to cash and vice versa, so use the lowest value with the mixture of money and shares,shares with basic to count zakat multiply 2.5 %. Zakat of Livestock Livestock zakat is property zakat that required to be taken out in perfect the conditions. Domestic animal that obliged to pay zakat is among them such as goat, , cattle , camel, sheep, buffalo. Prophet S.A.W said From Muaz Ibnu Jabal, had said, RasulullahS.A.W was sending me to Yaman and ask me to collect zakat from each of 30 cows, 1 lamb musinnah (1 female cattle aged up to 3 years ) and every 30 cows, tabi or tabiah ( 1 male or female cattle aged up to 2 years). The livestock that we would like to give a zakat must be perfect and no defects such as missing the foot or hand and so on. COWS/BUFFALOES Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 30-39 tail 1 tail, age 1 year / male 40-59 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / female 60-69 tail 2 tail, age 1 year / male 70-79 tail 1 tail, age 1 year / male and 2 tail, age 2 year / male 80-89 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / female 90-99 tail 3 tail, age 1 year / male 100-109 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / female and 2 tail, age 1 year / male 110-119 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / female and 1 tail, age 1 year / male 120 tail above tail, age 2 year / female and 3 tail, age 1 year / male GOATS Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 40-120 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / male or female 121-200 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / male or female 201-399 tail 3 tail, age 2 year / male or female Subsequent additions : Every of 100 tail plus plus 1 tail, age 2 year / male or female SHEEP Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 40-120 tail 1 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female 121-200 tail 2 tail , age 1 year / male @ female 201-399 tail 3 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female Subsequent additions : every 100 tail increased by 1 tail,age 1 year / male @ female. Zakat of Silver and Gold Gold and silver is a mineral that is required to charity. This is because these metals are very useful as it uses an exchange value of all things. As for other jewelry than gold and silver like diamond, pearl, silk, copper, are not obligatory zakat on it. Nisab zakat gold used = 200gram Gold zakat Nisab unused = 85gram Zakat Of Crops Zakat which is upon basic food which has reached the stage of satisfaction for the state which has 363 gantang / 1300 kg like paddy, wheat, cereals and so on.